TASHKENT - The capital of Independent Uzbekistan


 

 

Tashkent is a city on border of agricultural oases of Central Asia and boundless Eurasian steppes. People have lived here already many thousand years. The fertile green of the Tashkent oasis stretched on coast of small, but the abounding in water river - Chirchik, have attracted the human in the Stone Age. Chirchik follows from Chimgan Mountains (this is the western spurs of highland Tien Shan) and runs into the Syr Darya River.
In an
antiquity to expand the area of grounds irrigated by Chirchik, in its top current - numerous channels were allocated. These channels operate even today, they proceed through modern city in the form of natural small rivers, but actually it is the irrigational constructions dug by people two - two thousand of years ago. If you look at Tashkent from the plane clearly it is possible to see, that the city settles down at bottom of high mountains on the hilly plain pitted by channels which are smoothly going down from northeast on a southwest. The highest mark within the limits of city - 511,7 meters above sea level, the lowest - 381,1 meters.
Archeologists identify on the territory of modern capital of
Uzbekistan some significant archeological objects that are ancestors of Tashkent. Tashkent’s history can be observed from late III century B.C. – time from which the written sources and ancient city inside the contemporary city were preserved. One of them is the ancient city of Ming Orik situated on the Salar canal. Based on their excavations, the archeologists concluded that the first fortifications of the city were built at the end of I century B.C. - early I century A.D., i.e. the city is already 20 centuries old. Chinese chronicles that were based on the memoirs of the Chinese Ambassador Chjan Tsan with whom the concept of the first caravan route along the Great Silk Road is related can be named among the first written sources. In various Chinese sources the city mentioned as the city of Shi. At that time it was part of the Kongyuy State as independent kingdom. Soon it was conquered by Turks who established the great state on the territory of Central Asia. Chinese hieroglyph «Shi» means stone. But sources mention not only this name. For instance, according to writing of Sassanid king Shapur I in Iran in 262 A.D. the word «Chach» was drawn on the Zoroaster’s altar. Some of the experts refer the meaning from words Chach-kent, that in translation from ancient Turk language means "city of the Chach country". Under name Chach it is known in documents and inscriptions of ancient Persian kings who repeatedly undertook military campaigns here.
In those times Chach was desired extraction for conquerors: Persian Emperors, Macedonians under Alexander the Great, nomads of the Central Asia, local residents were fire-worshippers, monuments of Zoroastrism epoch were found on all territory of modern Tashkent. Under separate hills archeologists have found small settlements - castles, temples of Fire. Rather frequently characteristic ossuaries appeared in the ground of Tashkent - the special decorated clay vessels to keep human bones according to Zoroastrian canons.
After destruction of Chach (Arabs called "Shash") by Muslim conquerors under commander Kuteiba ibn Muslim, city in area Ming Orik tepe has not restored any more, and began to build up in the other place - on a hill between modern squares - Khadra, Eski-Juva and Chorsu.
Builders of XVI centuries - during
Sheybanid governor Dervish Muhammad-khan have chosen this extremity southern face of medieval internal city - Shakhristan - for erection of a majestic building - Madrassah (that is Islamic institute), the largest one of seventeen similar educational institutions existing in Tashkent.
Other group of interesting monuments of a history and architecture are the kept constructions of new city created by talented engineers of the end XIX  and the beginning of XX centuries for public institutions of an
administrative center of the Turkistan territory formed in Central Asia after a conquering these grounds by Russian empires.  Our present including both old, and new, numerous reorganizations, full re-planning, grandiose super modern construction - all this has transformed Tashkent into a unique sample of the largest Central Asian city in which it is extremely instructive for us to try to comprehend mutual relation of an antiquity and the present, to understand spirit of this city.
In 1991, after collapse of The 
Soviet Union , Uzbekistan declared itself as an Independent state with its capital in Tashkent. In 2007, Tashkent was named the cultural capital of the Islamic world as the city is home to numerous historic mosques and religious establishments. In 2009, Tashkent celebrated worldwide its 2200 years anniversary.

 
TASHKENT SIGHTS:
1. Khazrat Imam Mosque

2. Kaffal Shoshiy Mausoleum

3. Barak Khan Madrassah

4. Tillya Sheikh Madrassah

5. Muyi Muborak Madrassah

 

6. Kukeldash Madrassah

7. Kokcha Mosque

8. Abul Kasim Madrassah

9. Museum of Applied Arts

10. Museum Of History of Uzbekistan

11. Museum Of Fine Arts

12. Amir Temur Museum

13. The mansion of Romanov

14. Independence Square

15. Grand Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Alisher Navoi

16. Chorsu Bazaar
 
17. Tashkent Metro

 

18. Monument of Courage

19. Memorial of Repressions

20. Tashkent TV Tower

 

Khazrat Imam (Khast Imam) Complex
Khazrat Imam Complex is religious and historical monumental heritage center of Tashkent.  It is located in old part of Tashkent, surrounded by the quarter, houses for centuries living along with the complex neighborhood. The complex appeared near the tomb of one of the first Imam of Tashkent region, the famous scientist, master of theologies, scholar of the Koran and Hadith, poet and craftsman Abu-Bakr Muhammad Kaffal Shashi  or well known as Khazrat Imam. On the territory of the Complex there are number of architectural monuments, including:
-          The Mausoleum of the Saint Abu Bakr Kaffal Shashi;
-          The Madrasah of Barak-Khan;
-          Tilla Sheikh Mosque;
-          The Madrasah of Muyi Muborak;
-          Khazrat Imam Mosque;
-          Namozgoh Mosque;
-          The Islamic Institute of Imam al-Bukhari;
-          The Muslim Board of Uzbekistan;
One of the main attractions along with monumental heritage, the library of Muslim Board of Uzbekistan holding oriental manuscripts and The world famous Koran of Caliph Othman. The Koran is the primary source of Islam that was written in the middle of VII century. An ancient manuscript, consisting of 353 parchment sheets of very large size with the original text of the Koran for centuries was kept in the treasury of the Caliphs (consistently in the cities of Medina, Damascus and Baghdad).
Amir Temur Museum and Square
The monument of Amir Temur is an important landmark in Tashkent, a symbol of independence. It is located just in the center of the capital city, under the green-leaved branches of Amir Temur Square. Amir Temur is sitting on his horse, clad in battle garments, his steed in his left hand, his right hand stretched over the people meeting him, proudly wearing a crown as if only just returning from a victorious battle, to announce the coming of peace and tranquility.
The richly decorated Amir Timur Museum is a must for aficionados of kitsch and cult-making. Murals show Timur commissioning public projects and praising his labourers, yet conspicuously overlooking his bloody, skull-stacking military campaigns.

 

 

Mustaqillik (Independence) Square
This is the main square of the Republic of Uzbekistan, a symbol of the independence of the people. The buildings of the Cabinet of Ministers and the Senate are located here. The square's entrance is decorated by the Ark. The road under it leads to the square where the Monument of Independence and Humanism (consisting of two statues: the "Independence" and the "Happy Mother") is located. 

The Independence Monument (1991) - This monument signifies the sovereignty of Uzbekistan, represented by the gold color globe with the state outlines. While it does not show its real geographical location, it symbolizes the aspiration of the young state to join the world community and be recognized by many countries.

Grand Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Alisher Navoi
The theater was constructed in 1947 by architect Schusev A.V. One year later it was named after poet Alisher Navoi. The Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre is truly unique in its architecture and interior design. The interior is beautifully decorated with marble carvings. Theatrical Square, with a splendid fountain adjoining the theater, is a favorite place for residents and guests of the capital.

 
Monument Of Courage
The Monument of Courage is located in the central part of Tashkent, near main water supply Ankhor Canal. It is symbolizing   the power and strength of people who took part in reconstruction of Tashkent after the earthquake. The Statue of family awoken early in morning is standing in front of the earthquake wave and date and time shown cube. The monument of Courage was built in 1976 dedicated to the 10-th anniversary of the destructive earthquake in Tashkent that destroyed almost half of the city. Those days the city still was mainly consisting of the old city, and most of the buildings suffered from it. More than 300,000 residents were left homeless. Some 78,000 poorly engineered homes were destroyed, mainly in the densely packed areas of the old city, where traditional adobe housing predominated. Immediately after the earthquake, all 14 republics of the Soviet Union united in order to rebuild the largest town in Central Asia. The Soviet republics, and some other countries such as Finland, sent "battalions of fraternal peoples” and urban planners to help rebuild devastated Tashkent. They created a model Soviet city of wide streets planted with shade trees, parks, immense plazas for parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. 

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Uzbekistan Hotels

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Hotel Margush


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Oguzkent Ashgabat


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Useful Links
The Governmental portal of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
National Company "Uzbekistan Airways"
National company "Uzbektourizm"
APTA - Association of Private Tourism Agencies